What Does FTTH and FTTX Mean, and What is the Internet?
What is the Internet?
Before, explaining what FTTH, FTTX and other similar terms actually mean, we need to take a step back and try to define the internet as we know it. The internet is made up of millions of data centers and hosting servers that are linked together as a global network called world wide web (www). This global network provides online information that may be viewed by any web-connected information processing device, which can be called an internet capable device.
Internet Capable Devices
Internet capable refers to any electronic devices that are capable of connecting to or providing access to the internet's public websites and data. Internet capable devices include computers, smartphones, televisions, game consoles, and automobiles.
The World Wide Web
The term world wide web refers to all the internet connected devices on earth and all the mediums and servers that joins them together. But the most vital part of the world wide web are the fiber cables that connect continents and countries to each other. These fiber optic cables are installed across oceans, seas, and between nations to connect all cities and villages to the main internet web via ISPs. An internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides a link between the main internet web and internet users in specific locations, eventually reaching homes, businesses, and mobile devices.
The Internet and Fiber Optic Technology
Connecting the internet's data centers and web hosting servers allows billions of individuals to transfer information to one another at the same time. This means that the internet network must be joined using the quickest data transmitting mediums humanity has ever devised in order for information transit to be nearly instantaneous. The best solution for this is fiber optic cables, which transfer data using laser light signals. Light signals are the fastest moving electromagnetic energy in the universe, that is why they represent the ultimate method of transferring data across the globe in an instant.
Can Any Internet Capable Device Use Fiber Optic Cables?
Yes, but not directly. Any internet capable device can use a fiber internet connection through a router, but not any device can interpret light signals from a fiber optic cable. The expanse of fiber optic infrastructure, connecting ISPs to clients, varies a lot form one city to another and from one town to another. Most client internet connected devices are not able to send and receive information using fiber cables and light signals, without using transceivers and routers to convert the signal from light to electronic. Most computers use local metallic cables ethernet networks or Wi-Fi ethernet networks, and both networks need a router that is connected to the ISPs infrastructure throughout multiple other elements along the line.
What is an Optical Transceiver, or a Fiber Optic Transceiver?
A fiber optic transceiver is a device that transfers and receives data across a fiber optic cable using light signals. To connect with another transceiver on the other end of a fiber optic cable, transceivers feature electronic components that can encode electronic data as light pulses and decode light pulses as electronic data. Transceivers and fiber cables combine to form a data channel that links network electrical devices over vast distances.
The Connection Between Clients and ISP (Internet Service Providers)
Between an ISP and the client's internet router there are primarily nodes, which are equipment with many transceivers, which are capable of converting light impulses to electrical signals and vice versa. These nodes are positioned in each serviced region, and they have cables that go from them to the neighboring districts and all the way to the clients, with various check points, or branching points, along the route. As a result, cabinets are used to distribute connections to streets, splitters are used to send lines to houses and buildings, and distribution boxes are used to distribute lines within complexes and buildings.
What does Fiber to the X mean?
The fiber optic connection from an ISP to a customer includes several check points, and the fiber line can be terminated and linked to a metallic line using optical transceivers at any of these check points, until it reaches the client. The fiber to the X (FTTX) concept comes from this idea that the point where a fiber line is terminated and transformed into a metallic line determines the topology of the line and the distribution network infrastructure. That’s why FTTX implies many terms like FTTH, FTTN, FTTC, FTTB and all the rest.
Means Fiber to the X
FTTX means Fiber to the X, which refers to a variety of broadband optical fiber delivery topologies that are classified based on where the fiber optic line ends and the metallic network line begins. FTTX includes all the other similar terms like FTTN, FTTC/FTTK, FTTB, FTTH, FTTP, FTTS, FTTD, FTTR, FTTS, and FTTA.
Means Fiber to the Node or Fiber to the Neighborhood
The node is FTTN is a large-scale optical receiver that terminates a broadband multi-fiber optical cable, coming from an ISP (Internet Service Provider), and distributes it into multiple metallic network lines that reach the clients’ homes or offices. FTTN technically means Fiber to the Node but is commonly interpreted as Fiber to the Neighborhood, as every neighborhood would have a node for internet line distribution. The term FTTN may also be substituted by FTTLA (Fiber to the Last Amplifier), because a long broadband multi-fiber optical cable usually has amplifiers, which amplify the signal along the line.
Means Fiber to the Cabinet or Fiber to the Curb
A FTTC fiber internet line is terminated in a distribution cabinet located no more than 300 meters from the client’s home or . This means an FTTC lines are terminated at the middle between a fiber optic node and the clients. The passive optical network (PON) fiber lines in the FTTC topology are often distributed to several clients through metallic cabling from the cabinet. FTTC technically means Fiber to the Cabin but it is commonly defined as Fiber to the Curb. That is why it can be known as FTTK in countries that use the British spelling of the word “Kerb”.
Means Fibre to the Kerb
FTTK (Fibre to the Kerb) is the British spelling of its American equivalent FTTC (Fiber to the Curb). Technically they both mean Fiber to the Cabinet typology, in which a fiber internet line is terminated in fiber distribution cabinet, 300 m (at most) away from the client’s home or office.
Means Fiber to the Home or House
Fiber to the Home, or FTTH, is a network infrastructure topology in which a fiber internet line reaches a client's home or business, or at least reaches up to 2 meters from the client's property or company premises. FTTH can simply refer to the delivery of a fiber internet line to homes, offices, apartment buildings, and other facilities. FTTH can also refer to FTTF (Fiber to the Floor), FTTD (Fiber to the Door or Fiber to the Desk), and it is commonly used to refer to FTTB (Fiber to the Building) and FTTP (Fiber to the Premises).
Means Fiber to the Router, Room or Radio
FTTR has three meanings. First, FTTR (Fiber to the Router) is a fiber internet line spanning from the ISP to the client home or office router. Second, FTTR (Fiber to the Room) is a multiple FTTH (Fiber to the Home) line that is spilt within the house to multiple fiber lines, each for a different room. Third, FTTR (Fiber to the Radio) is a fiber line that reaches the base station of a radio or mobile network, but it does not reach the actual transmitting antenna like in FTTA (Fiber to the Antenna or Fiber to the Air).
Means Fiber to the Building, Basement or Business
In FTTB a fiber optic internet line reaches the inner area of a business or residential building and it is usually terminated in a fiber termination box in the basement of the building. That is why FTTB (Fiber to the Building) is usually referred to as Fiber to the Basement or Fiber to the Business, when the building belongs to a corporation.
Means Fiber top The Premises or Fiber to the Pole
FTTP is a term usually used to refer to Fiber to the Premises architecture topology in fiber network infrastructure. It refers to a fiber internet line that reaches the inner side of the a company premises fence or the inner side of a multi-building residential complex. This FTTP term is relatively large and covers within it many other fiber optic network topologies like: FTTB (Fiber to the Building), FTTH (Fiber to the Home), FTTD (Fiber to the Desk/Door), FTTF (Fiber to the Floor), and FTTR (Fiber to the Router).
Means Fiber to the Street
FTTS is a broadband infrastructure architecture topology in which a fiber internet line is terminated, 200 m away at most, midway between the client and the distributions cabinet. FTTS (Fiber to the Street) term is used when the fiber termination point is closer than the cabinet, as in FTTC, and too far from the client, as in FTTH or FTTP. FTTS can also mean Fiber to the Subscriber, as an alternative term referring to FTTH (Fiber to the Home) or FTTP (Fiber to the Premises).
Means Fiber to the Floor, Frontage, Farm, Factory or Feeder
The term FTTF can refer to a fiber internet line that reaches the inner area of a building and it is split into multiple fiber lines, one for each floor and then it is terminated and transferred to a metallic network. It is very close to the term FTTH (Fiber to the Home) but the difference that FTTF means the fiber line is terminated higher than the ground floor and then terminated to a metallic network an distributed to multiple apartments. On the other hand, FTTF (Fiber to the Frontage) is used as an equivalent to FTTB (Fiber to the Building) as to mean that the fiber line reaches the front side of a building. FTTF can also mean Fiber to the Farm or Fiber to the Factory, depending on the type of area in which the fiber optic infrastructure is laid out.
Means Fiber to the Desk or Fiber to the Door
Fiber network architecture topology names have multiple meanings like the term FTTD; which can mean Fiber to the Desk, referring to fiber line from a building server to an office desk, or can mean Fiber to the Door, referring to a fiber internet line that reaches the outside wall of a building apartment, with in an FTTH (Fiber to the Home) network infrastructure.
FTTA & FTTR
Means Fiber to the Air or Antenna and Fiber to the Radio
FTTA network architecture topology term have two definitions. One is Fiber to the Antenna and the other is fiber to the Air, but they both imply the same meaning. FTTA (Fiber to the Anetnna or Fiber to the Air) term is used when the lines of a fiber network reach up radio antennas, which have optical transceivers and transmitter in order to transfer optical signals into radio waves. FTTA networks represent the base infrastructure of 3G, 4G and 5G mobile networks. On other hand, as previously mentioned in this article, FTTR (Fiber to the Radio) means that fiber optic cables reach the base station of a radio or mobile network, but the actual transmitting antenna.
About Samm Teknoloji
Fiber Optic Cable Manufacturer
Being a Turkish fiber optic cable manufacturer and an efficient supplier for Europe, Asia and America, SAMM Teknoloji joined the global market with very high potential. SAMM designs and manufactures a wide variety of fiber optic cable types optimized for fixed or mobile networks that can be used in indoor and outdoor environments. SAMM offers reliable, cost-effective optical products to meet the needs of customers with innovative products developed and tested in accordance with international standards.
Fiber Optic Assemblies Producer
As a fiber optic cable assemblies producer and supplier in Turkey and an optical assemblies supplier for Europe and Asia, Samm Teknoloji has been providing high-quality and reliable fiber optic cable assemblies since 2006. Due to our fully equipped production facilities, laboratories and long-term expertise in fiber optics, we are able to produce a first class fiber optic assemblies portfolio that ensure the highest level reliability. Therefore, one of the main priority is the ongoing expansion and advancement of the manufacturing capabilities.
Data Center Solutions Producer
As a Turkish producer of future-ready fiber optic data center equipment, SAMM Teknoloji produces UHD ultra high density MTP/MPO panels and cassettes, modular panels and cabling raceways. SAMM Teknoloji has also kept pace with the accelerating spread of Cloud Computing, which has increased the need for mega Data Centers. SAMM provides Data Center solutions and products that suit all structures with high data storage density, data traffic and data security.